**ECE
103 Fundamentals of Devices and Materials**

**Fall
Quarter, September 26 – December 14, 2013**

**University
of California San Diego**

**Department
of Electrical and Computer Engineering**

**Instructor: **Prof. Shadi Dayeh

Office: Jacobs
Hall (EBU1), Room 4803

Tel.: (858) 534-5171;
Fax: (858) 534-0556; e-mail: sdayeh@ucsd.edu

Office Hours: Tuesday 3:00 - 4:00 pm; Friday 10:00 - 11:00 am or by appointment/drop in.

**Lectures:** Tuesday, Thursday, 12:30 - 1:50
pm Warren Lecture Hall (WLH), Room 2005.

**Discussion
Session:** Monday, Wednesday 12:00-12:50pm Pepper Canyon Hall (PCYNH),
Room 122.

**Teaching Assistants: **

- Farid Azzazi, e-mail: faridazzazy@gmail.com

Discussion Sessions: M 12:00 – 12:50 pm, PCYNH, starting Sept. 30

Office Hours: Thursday 3:00-4:00pm.
Friday 3:00am-4:00pm, EBU1, Room (EBU1-5706).

- Somayeh Imani, e-mail: soimani@ucsd.edu

Discussion Sessions: W 12:00 – 12:50 pm, PCYNH

Office Hours: Monday & Wednesday 5:00-6:00pm, EBU1, Room (EBU1-5706).

á **Announcements:**

- 12/16/2013:
The final has been graded. Here are the statistics,
final questions, final solutions, and your grades. Your letter grades
have been submitted. Best of luck at and beyond UCSD!

- 12/05/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we overviewed carrier transport in Schottky
barriers and MESFETs (quite briefly and conceptually) and selected
homework problems. We then we did an overview of the material we covered in
this class from pn junctions onwards. Good luck
studying for the final!

- 12/03/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we discussed the non-ideal MOS and MOSFETs. We looked into
threshold voltage shift due to fixed and mobile charges, and interface traps
and the general formula for flat-band voltage and threshold voltage. We also
looked into the potential and inversion charge profile in MOSFETs and derived
their IV characteristics. We started the metal-semiconductor junctions
which we will continue on ThursdayÕs lecture and also provide a review
for the Final.

- 11/26/2013:
Here are two sample finals from previous years: Sample
Final 1, and Sample Final 2 and solutions
for homework 7 and homework
8 referenced in Sample Final 2.

- 11/26/2013:
Quiz#2 has been graded. Here are the statistics, quiz solutions, and your grades up to date.

- 11/26/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we reviewed the ideal MOS diode/capacitor in the context of
the lecture on 11/21/2013, and went on to calculate the MOS surface potential
and electric field, depletion width, potential drop across the oxide, and the
threshold voltage. We then discussed the capacitance voltage characteristics
for ideal MOS. Next lecture, we will discuss non-ideal
MOS and MOSFETs.

- 11/21/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we discussed the ideal MOS diode/capacitor, effects of bias
electric charge, field, potential and energy band-diagrams and we then followed
by definitions on surface potential, inversion condition, and 1D solution of
PoissonÕs equation.

- 11/19/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we looked into the npn
BJT transistor operation to compliment our earlier discussion on pnp transistor operation from last lectuer.
We also looked at the modes of operation relevant to minority carrier profile
depending on base-emitter and base-collector biases, common base I-V
characteristics, common emitter I-V characteristics, base width
modulation/early voltage, performance parameters of BJTs, breakdown mechanisms
due to punch through and avalanche multiplication effects, and briefly went
over the Ebers Moll equations and model.

- 11/14/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we wrapped up our discussion on solar cells and discussed
bipolar junction transistorÕs principle of operation and transistor action,
energy bands, and minority carrier density profiles and current densities.

- 11/12/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over derivation of the narrow base minority carrier
concentration profile and current density. We then discussed fundamental
aspects of the physics of operation of solar cells up to the IV characteristics
of a solar cell. In our next lecture, we will finish up with figures of merit
relevant to solar cells and start with BJTs. You will not be questioned about
solar cells in quiz#2 and the exam.

- 11/07/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over the midterm solutions, and overviewed minority
carrier concentration profiles and currents in p-n junctions under different
bias conditions. We then discussed the current-voltage characteristics and
non-idealities in p-n junctions including Avalanche multiplication, tunneling
process, recombination-generation currents in the depletion region, high-level
injection effects, and series resistance effects on the I-V characteristics. We
then discussed narrow base diodes and their minority carrier density profiles.

- 10/31/2013:
In todayÕs regular lecture, we sharpened the qualitative discussion of
band-edge diagrams and current transport in p-n junctions. We discussed
reference electrostatic potentials and solved PoissonÕs equation in the
quasi-neutral regions to obtain field and potential expressions, which we then
used to calculate the junction depletion widths and built-in potentials. In the
make-up lecture, we worked with the energy-band diagrams under different
biasing regimes and discussed their influence on depletion and current
transport. We then solved for the minority carrier density in the p- and n-
quasi-neutral regions and derived the IV characteristics for an ideal pn junction diode.

- 10/24/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over the continuity equations and looked an example
of solving the minority carrier distribution as a function of x for steady
state injection from 1-side. We then looked at p-n junctions, with a qualitative
picture of how diffusion-drift components cancel each other, and how to
construct the energy band-diagram of a p-n junction at thermal equilibrium. We
then derived PoissonÕs equation and applied it, qualitatively, to sketch the
field, potential, and band-diagram in p-n junctions. *I have uploaded the lecture notes and two extra pages on applying
PoissonÕs equation quantitatively to the p-n junction and on deriving the
built-in voltage and the depletion widths. Please use these to attempt problems
5.2 and 5.11 of Homework#4. These will be considered bonus problems and we will
give you extra credit if you solve them.*

- 10/22/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went overviewed drift/diffusion current concepts and
discussed the derivation of EinsteinÕs relationship, concept of Quasi-Fermi
levels total current density expression relevant to the quasi-Fermi levels, the
Hall effect (not required), Recombination/Generation processes (mainly
trap-assisted, direct band-to band, and Auger recombination). We then discussed
the net recombination rate upon illumination and the steady-state spatial and
time-dependent minority carrier density profiles.

- 10/17/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we overviewed mobility dependence on material parameters
and velocity-field effects in Si and GaAs. We then
discussed drift current, conductivity/resistivity, electrostatic potential and
potential/kinetic energies, carrier diffusion, and EinsteinÕs relationship. We
will start next time by a brief overview of drift/diffusion, and EinsteinÕs
relationship and get to recombination/generation mechanisms and the continuity
equations.

- 10/17/2013:
There will be no lecture on Tuesday Oct. 29^{th}. We will have a
make-up lecture on Thursday Oct. 31^{st} 6:30 - 7:50 pm in CSB
(Cognitive Science Building, room 002).

- 10/17/2013:
The first midterm will be pushed back to Nov. 5^{th}.

- 10/17/2013:
Homework # 3 is posted in the Homework section and is due on Oct. 22^{nd}
at the beginning the lecture.

- 10/15/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we reviewed free carrier statistics, went over a few
concepts in carrier transport relevant to drift velocity, scattering
mechanisms, and mobility field relationships. We then conducted our 1^{st}
½ hour Quiz.

- 10/10/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over free carrier concentration density for
intrinsic and extrinsic non-degenerate semiconductors, charge neutrality and
electron-density as a function of temperature, and worked out two examples (3^{rd}
example included in the lecture notes). As for variation of the energy band-gap
of Si with energy, the equation should be: Eg(T)=Eg(0)-alpha.T^2/(T+betta). All parameters were given in example 2.

- 10/08/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over the concepts and expressions for the density
of states, Fermi energy and Fermi function, and the carrier concentration in
non-degenerate semiconductors. Next lecture, we will iterate over the carrier
concentration in intrinsic and extrinsic (doped) semiconductors and the
temperature dependence of their carrier concentration and proceed to charge
transport in semiconductors.

- 10/08/2013:
Prof. Dayeh will hold an extra office hour this Wednesday (10/09/13) 1-2pm, and
another office hour on Monday (10/14/13) 4-5 pm in 4803-EBU1. There will be no
office hour at 10-11 am on Friday (10/11/13).

- 10/08/2013:
Homework # 2 due date is postponed to Oct. 15^{th}.

- 10/08/2013:
Next Tuesday (Oct. 15^{th}) is our first quiz. It will include
materials we went over thus far up to the contents of the lecture on 10/10/13.
A sample quiz is uploaded to the Handouts section.

- 10/03/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we continued our discussion on crystal structure and went
over FCC, Diamond/ZincBlende structures, miller
indices of planes and directions. We then went over the concept of hole charge
transport, donors and acceptors.

- 10/01/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over the concept of energy-momentum diagrams, their
characteristics for insulators, semiconductors (direct and indirect bandgaps), metals and semi-metals. We discussed
classification of semiconductors according to composition and long-range
structure. We then discussed crystal structure classification with unit cells
for the cases of simple cubic and body-centered cubic.

- 09/26/2013:
In todayÕs lecture, we went over the logistics of ECE103, an introduction to
the Electronic Devices and Materials depth and the class syllabus. We then went
over the evolution of energy bands from molecules to solids and discussed the
concept of energy bandgap, valence band, and
conduction band.

- 09/25/2013: Welcome to ECE103! Please check this website
regularly for announcements and class related handouts.

á **Lecture Notes:**

- 09/26/2013 Lecture 1 (~36MB)

- 10/01/2013 Lecture 2 Notes Lecture 2 supporting slides

- 10/03/2013 Lecture 3 Notes

- 10/08/2013 Lecture 4 Notes

- 10/10/2013 Lecture 5 Notes

- 10/15/2013 Lecture 6 Notes

- 10/17/2013 Lecture 7 Slides

- 10/22/2013 Lecture 7-8 Notes Lecture 8
supporting slides

- 10/22/2013 Lecture 9 Notes

- 10/22/2013 Lecture 10-11 Notes

- 11/07/2013 Lecture 12 Notes Lecture 12 supporting slides

- 11/12/2013 Lecture 13 Slides

- 11/14/2013 Lecture 14 Notes Lecture 14 slides

- 11/19/2013 Lecture 15 Notes Lecture 15 slides

- 11/21/2013 Lecture 16 Notes

- 11/26/2013 Lecture 17 Notes Lecture 17 slides

- 12/03/2013 Lecture 18 Notes Lecture 18 slides Introduction to
metal-semiconductor-contacts

- 12/03/2013 Lecture 19 Slides

á
**Handouts:**

- 10/08/2013 Midterm and its Solution

- 10/08/2013 Quiz Example

- 10/17/2013 Quiz #1 Solution

- 10/31/2013 Selected Midterm Review Slides

- 10/31/2013 Sample midterm questions

- 10/31/2013 Somayeh Discussion Session
Notes#1

- 11/14/2013 Somayeh Discussion Session
Notes#2

- 11/26/2013 Quiz #2
Solution

- 11/26/2013 Sample Final 1

- 11/26/2013 Sample Final 2

á
**Problem Sets and
Solutions:**

- Homework 1
due on Oct. 8^{th} Homework 1 Solutions

- Homework 2
due on ~~Oct. 10th~~ Oct. 15^{th} Homework 2 Solutions

- Homework 3
due on Oct. 22^{nd} Homework 3 Solutions

- Homework 4
due on Oct. 31^{st} Homework 4 Solutions

- Homework 5
due on Nov. 14^{th} Homework 5 Solutions

- Homework 6
(overall review) due on Nov. 21^{st} Homework 6 Solutions

- Homework 7
due on Dec. 3rd Homework 7 Solutions

- Homework 8
due on Dec. 5th Homework 8 Solutions

© Shadi Dayeh, 2013 Last update: 12/16/2013 10:41 pm